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Other more complex laws may be needed if the network contains nonlinear or reactive components.

Circuits with nonlinear elements are harder to analyse and design, often requiring circuit simulation computer programs such as spice.In other cases infinitesimal elements are used to model the network in a distributed element model.Batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches ) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g.The gain is characterised by a transfer conductance which will have units of siemens.To more exactly describe the passive elements, their constitutive relation is used instead of simple proportionality.An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current.A more refined model also includes a series inductance, to represent the effects of its lead inductance (resistors constructed as a spiral have more significant inductance).(Manuel Bolotinha table of Contents, short, circuit.Electrical elements are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, used in the analysis of electrical networks.Introduction of the gyrator also makes either capacitance or inductance non-essential since a gyrator terminated with one of these at port 2 will be equivalent to the other at port.The constitutive relations of the passive elements are given by; 1 Resistance: constitutive relation defined as f ( V, I ) 0 displaystyle f(V,I)0.Contents Classification edit By passivity edit An active network is a network that contains an active source either a voltage source or current source.Both these elements are necessarily non-linear elements.

Affects magnetic flux according to the relation d V d t displaystyle dPhi V,dt.