As an example for addressing stop codon evolution, it has been suggested that the stop codons are such that they are most likely to terminate translation early in the case of a frame shift error.
The bases survived cell division.
Molecular biology of the cell (4th.).Schueren F, Lingner T, George R, Hofhuis J, english today dvdcdbook pdf vol 1/26 Gartner J, Thoms S (2014).Ribas de Pouplana L, Turner RJ, Steer BA, Schimmel P (September 1998).24 During the process of DNA replication, errors occasionally occur in the polymerization of the second strand.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America.Di Giulio M (October 1989).A b c d Erives A (August 2011).Clinically important missense mutations generally change the properties of the coded amino acid residue among basic, acidic, polar or non-polar states, whereas nonsense mutations result in a stop codon.Wang Q, Parrish AR, Wang L (March 2009).These "rate-distortion" models 85 suggest that the genetic code originated as a result of the interplay of the three conflicting evolutionary forces: the needs for diverse amino acids, 86 for error-tolerance 81 and for minimal users choice mtmichael ende - la storia infinitaebook-ita-pdf-fantastico resource cost.Holley determined the structure of transfer RNA (tRNA the adapter molecule that facilitates the process of translating RNA into protein.67 It could also reflect steric and chemical properties that had another effect on the codon during its evolution.87 Game theory: Models based on signaling games combine elements of game theory, natural selection and information channels.While the "genetic code" determines a protein's amino acid sequence, other genomic regions determine when and where these proteins are produced according to various "gene regulatory codes".
"Evolution and the universality of the mechanism of initiation of protein synthesis".